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中国元旦  

2012-12-28 09:41:28|  分类: 金华留学英语、金 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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 中国元旦



    中国元旦历来指的是农(夏、阴)历正月初一。元是的意思,旦  欢度元旦



  指日子,元旦合称即是初始的日子,也就是一年的第一天。在汉语各地语言中有不同叫法,有叫大年初一的,有叫大天初一的,有叫年初一的,一般又叫正月初一   元旦,《书·舜典》中叫元日,汉代崔瑗《三子钗铭》中叫元正;晋代庾阐《扬都赋》中称作元辰;北齐时的一篇《元会大享歌皇夏辞》中呼为元春;唐德宗李适《元日退朝观军仗归营》诗中谓之元朔。 我国历代元旦的月日并不一致。夏代在正月初一,商代在十二月初一,周代在十一月初一,秦始皇统一六国后,又以十月初一日为元旦,自此历代相沿未改(《史记》)。汉武帝太初元年时,司马迁创立了太初历,这才又以正月初一为元旦,和夏代规定一样,所以又称夏历,一直沿用到辛亥革命。中华民国建立,孙中山为了行夏正,所以顺农时;从西历,所以便统计,定正月初一(元旦)为春节,而以西历(公历)11日为新年。   在当代,元旦指公元纪年的岁首第2天。自西历传入我国以后,元旦一词便专用于新年,传统的旧历年则称春节。 公元1911年,孙中山领导的辛亥革命,推翻了满清的统治,建立了中华民国。各省都督代表在南京开会,决定使用公历,把农历的正月初一叫做春节,把公历的11日叫做元旦。不过当时并未正式公布和命名。 为了行夏正,所以顺农时,从西历,所以便统计,民国元年决定使用公历(实际使用是1912年),并规定阳历(公历)11日为新年,但并不叫元旦   今天所说的元旦,是新中国成立前夕的公元1949927日,中国人民政治协商会议第一届全体会议决议:中华人民共和国纪年采用公元纪年法,即是我们所说的阳历,为了区别农历和阳历两个新年,又鉴于农历二十四节气中的立春恰在农历新年的前后,因此便把农历正月初一改称为春节,阳历一月一日定为元旦,至此,元旦才成为全国人民的欢乐节日。



  编辑本段元旦起源



      元旦



  古代中国的元旦日,并非如今通用的格列历”——公历的11日。从殷代定农历十二月初一为岁首,到汉代定在农历正月初一为岁首,曾有多次反反复复的改变。到民国时孙中山于19121月初在南京就任临时大总统时为顺农时便统计,定农历正月初一为春节,改公历11日称为岁首新年,但仍称元旦。直到解放后中央人民政府颁布统一使用全国年节和纪念日放假办法,将公历11日规定为元旦节,并决定全国在此节放假一天。同时为区别农历和公历两个新年,又鉴于农历二十四个节气中的立春,恰在农历新年前后,因此改农历正月初一称为春节   “元旦,指开始,是第一的意思,凡数之始称为,象形字,上面的代表太阳,下面的代表地平线。即太阳从地平线上冉冉升起,象征一日的开始。人们把两个字结合起来,就引申为新年开始的第一天。元旦又称三元,即岁之元、月之元、时之元。元旦一词最早始于三皇五帝,唐房玄龄等人写的《晋书》上载:“颛帝以孟春正月为元,其时正朔元旦之春。即把正月称为元,初一为旦。南朝梁人兰子云的《介雅》诗也云:“四气新元旦,万寿初今朝。”   还有个传说,是在4000多年前远古的尧舜盛世之时,尧天子在位时勤政于民为百姓办了很多好事,很受广大百姓爱戴,但因其子无才不太成器,他没把天子的皇位传给自己的儿子,而是传给了品德才能兼备的舜。尧对舜说:“你今后一定要把帝位传交好,待我死后也可安心瞑目了。后来舜把帝位传给了治洪水有功的禹,禹亦像舜那样亲民爱民为百姓做了很多好事,都十分受人爱戴。后来人们把尧死后,舜帝祭祀天地和先帝尧的那一天,当作一年的开始之日,把正月初一称为元旦,或元正,这就是古代的元旦。历代皇朝都在元旦举行庆贺典仪祈祀等活动,如祭诸神祭先祖,写门对挂春联,书写福字、舞龙灯,民间也逐渐形成祭神佛、祭祖先、贴春联、放鞭炮、守岁、吃团圆饭以及众多的社火等娱乐欢庆活动。晋代诗人辛兰曾有《元正》诗:“元正启令节,嘉庆肇自兹。咸奏万年觞,小大同悦熙。记述元旦庆贺情景。   在民国以后虽然定11日为新年,当时只有机关、学校以及外国经营的洋行大商号等才放假1天,老百姓并不承认,仍延承古时旧习以农历初一为新年,因此老北京的街市上与民间均没有什么欢庆活动。解放后将11日岁首改称为元旦节后,政府仍按照几千年来使用的农历历法按农时节令,在立春前后冬闲时期的春节放假三天,民间办庙会等欢庆,传承百姓的心愿和千百年的民俗。



  编辑本段元旦含义



    1、中国古代称新年第一天为元旦或元日、元长、元朔、元春,具体日期在西汉以前各不相同,西汉汉武帝太初元年,司马迁创太初历,以正月初一日为元



  Chinese New Year



  Chinese New Year has always refers to farmers (summer, Yin) calendar of the first month. Yuan is "beginning", "beginning" meaning, celebrating the New Year's day cutted



  Refers to the "day", New Year's day, the company that is "initial day", also is the first day of the year. In Chinese language has various hyphenates around, there are called "lunar New Year", have called "big days month", have called on New Year's day ", and generally called "the first month". New Year's day, book, shun Canon "in han dynasty YuanRi", called "the Chai inscription been reflected cui eliphelet of call" yuan is "; YuChan "jin Yang ode in called" magic "; $ When a piece of beiqi the yuan will be multiplied song imperial summer phrase "shout for" yuan; the spring" One YuanRi back toward the LiShi view to camp in the poem of military battle in the "yuan" shobach ". In the past dynasties on June 21 is not uniform. In the first month, system of shang, zhou dynasty in December month in November, qin shihuang unified after six month, and the first day in October for New Year's day, has not changed since past dynasties (shiji). In the beginning, yuan emperor, sima qian created the "the beginning calendar", this ability again with the first day of the first lunar New Year's day, and took provisions as, say again so "XiaLi", have been used to the revolution of 1911. The republic of China in order to establish, sun yat-sen, so summer "line is the farming; from the western, so that statistics", set the first month (New Year's day), and for the Spring Festival in the western calendar January 1st as New Year's day. In contemporary, New Year's day, refers to the Christian era of at the first 2 days. Since the western introduced into China, New Year's day after a word was dedicated to the New Year, the traditional JiuLiNian says the Spring Festival. A.D. 1911, under the leadership of the revolution of 1911, sun yat-sen overthrew the rule of the manchu, established the republic of China. Our representatives meeting in nanjing provinces, decided to use the lunar calendar, the day of the first month called "Spring Festival, the Gregorian calendar on January 1, called" New Year's day ". But did not officially announced and the naming. In order to "line summer is, so the farming from the western, so that statistics Taiwan," the first decided to use the calendar (actual use is 1912), and stipulates the Gregorian calendar (Gregorian calendar) January 1 as "happy New Year", but not call "New Year's day". Said today "New Year's day", is the eve of the founding of the 1949 on September 27, the Chinese people's political consultative conference first plenary session resolution: "the People's Republic of China by the Christian confence approved, that is what we call the solar calendar, in order to distinguish the lunar New Year, and two to the solar calendar in view of the lunar year" of "24 solar terms in just before and after the lunar New Year, so he put on the lunar calendar renamed" Spring Festival ", the solar calendar as "New Year's day on January 1, thus, the New Year's day to become national people's joy festival.



  Edit this section on New Year's day origin



  New Year's day



  Ancient Chinese New Year's day, not now universal "which Gregorian calendar almanac" - January 1. From the Yin and set the twelfth lunar month of the first year, to the han dynasty set at the lunar calendar year, had many times for repeated change. To the republic of sun yat-sen in 1912, when early January as temporary President in nanjing for "sunlink farming", "then statistics", decide on the lunar calendar for the Spring Festival, changing the Gregorian calendar year on January 1, called "New Year", but it is still called "New Year's day". Until the central people's government promulgated the liberation unified use "national festival and anniversaries holidays approach", the Gregorian calendar January 1 provisions for New Year's day, and decide the national in the period have the day off. At the same time for the lunar calendar year and difference between the two, and in view of the lunar year of "four and twenty solar term", just before the lunar New Year, so change on the lunar calendar is called "Spring Festival". "New" yuan ", refers to start, is the first meaning, every few beginning called "yuan", "Denier", XiangXingZi, above the "day" refers to the sun, "a" representative below the horizon. "Denier" namely the sun rising slowly on the horizon, the symbol of the day's start. People put "yuan" and "denier" talaq, extended to combine the first day of the New Year begins. New Year's day is also called "ternary", namely the yuan, months of age of yuan yuan,. New Year's day the word begins with the memorial rituals, tang and five sovereigns FangXuanLing etc. Write the chapter "upload:" in the MengChun emperor xu is yuan, when the spring of New Year's day is shomer." Namely the called yuan, of the first eruptions. In the interface LanZiYun beam people azariah poems also cloud: "four gas new New Year's day, WanShouChu today." There is a legend, in more than 4,000 years ago ancient ChengShiZhi, emperor shun many legends of diligent in people for people do many good thing, very receives general people love, but because of its have no just not quite useful implement, he didn't, "the emperor's throne" to his own son, but passed the character can shrugging shun. Yao to shun said: "your future must preach cosied up, stay kingship over human beings after my death also can ease gently." Later shun the kingship over human beings to cure the flood of yu, yu meritorious as close to people also like shun featured for the people did a lot of good and is really loved. The people later put yao died, ShunDi sacrifice to heaven and earth first emperor yao that day, as a year starting date, the day of the first month called "New Year's day", or "yuan is", this is the ancient New Year's day. Successive royal are held DianYi unlikelihood on New Year's day celebration activities, such as sacrificial offering the gods offering ancestors, write who hang Spring Festival couplets and writing hang "happiness" upside down, WuLongDeng, folk also gradually formed offering is hit, worshipping, before Spring Festival couplet, firecracker, ShouSui, eat a big dinner and numerous "poses of entertainment festivities. Jin XinLan had the poet is poem: "RMB yuan is rev. Make section, jiaqing arises from this. Salty played sandy-loamed, small datong yue years corvee." New Year's day celebration scene accounts. In the republic of China after although set January 1st as New Year's day, when only organs, schools and foreign business of foreign big business such as 1 day, people only holiday, still do not admit in the eve of the lunar New Year old stereotypes turbine blades &vanes as well as for the New Year, so old Beijing streets and folk are not what the festivities. After liberation to January 1 year New Year's day festival renamed ", according to the government still use the thousands of years of Chinese lunar calendar in spring festive, according to farming DongXian before and after the period of "Spring Festival" three-day holidays, folk do "temple fair" wait for celebration, inheriting the people wish and thousands of folk.



  Edit this section on New Year's meaning



  1, China ancient times says the New Year's day New Year's day "or" YuanRi, yuan long, yuan to new moon and yuan dynasty, specific date in spring before each are not identical, emperor han too early, sima qian and first "too early to calendar" the month for yuan

 

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